Plain English — Plain Language — Clear Writing
for journalism, law, business, science, academic, technical
and general writing; with resources and interactive exercises
in Plain English, grammar, vocabulary, reading comprehension, etc.

Created/compiled by Atty. Gerry T. Galacio
Version: January 29, 2021

Notes: (1) This website is for your personal, educational, and non-commercial use only; you must not upload these exercises to any website, intranet, or the cloud. For comments, questions, or corrections, email (2) This website uses cookies; your continued use of this website means that you agree to such use. (3) If you’re using a mobile device such as a smartphone or tablet to view this website, Mozilla Firefox is the best option. (4) For the interactive exercises to work, you need to enable Javascript in your browser. (5) This website has more than 840 exercises with an average of 10 items per exercise.

Index of resources and exercises: Overview - PDF: Plain English, Plain Language, or Clear Writing; Why Use Plain Language? (US Census Bureau); Infographic: Plain Englsh, Please! (National Adult Literacy Agency, Ireland) | What is journalese? How is it different from Plain English? | Discussions on journalese (external links)| Resources in journalism (internal links) | PDF style guides for journalism and business institutions (external links) | PDF resources on grammar for journalists (external links) | Resources on Plain Language / Plain English for business writing | Free editing programs (external links) | PDF and PPT resources on Plain English for science writing (external links) | PDF resources on Plain English for academic writing (internal links) | Resources on Technical Writing in Plain English (internal and external links) | Resources on Plain Language for government communications (external links)| OWL Purdue University resources on Engish grammar and composition (external links)| Plain English resources (internal links) | PDF resources on writing for the Internet from 4Syllables (external links) | PDF resources on writing (internal links) | Miscellaneous exercises on Plain English | Plain English exercises on wordy words and phrases vs. simpler words and phrases | Plain English writing and editing exercises (internal and external links) | PDF resources and interactive exercises for legal writing | “Legal Writing in Plain English” by Bryan A. Garner | Miscellaneous English grammar exercises | Common English grammar errors (exercises) | Exercises based on “Grammar Tests” (Birmingham UK resource) | Vocabulary exercises (synonyms, antonyms, logic list, classified phrasal verbs, idioms) | Reading comprehension exercises | Paragraph summarizing and paragraph completion exercises; correct sequence of sentences (making up a story) | Recommended resources in Plain English, Plain Language, or Clear Writing (including health literacy flashcards - medical terms, phrases, references, and their Plain English equivalents or definitions)

What is journalese? How is it different from Plain English? “Journalese” is the artificial or hyperbolic, and sometimes over-abbreviated, language regarded as characteristic of the news style used in popular media (Wikipedia). On the other hand, “Plain English” (aka “Plain Language” or “Clear Writing”) is writing in such a way that readers can find what they need, understand what they find, and use what they find to meet their needs. The goal of Plain English writing is clarity.

Bryan Garner (editor of Black’s Law Dictionary): “The phrase ‘plain English’ certainly shouldn’t connote drab and dreary language. Actually, plain English is typically quite interesting to read. It’s robust and direct—the opposite of gaudy, pretentious language. You achieve plain English when you use the simplest, most straightforward way of expressing an idea. You can still choose interesting words. But you’ll avoid fancy ones that have everyday replacements meaning precisely the same thing.” For more information about what Plain English is, read Plain Language, Plain English or Plain Writing for government offices, private companies, schools, and organizations” (external link).

What is journalese? (external links): “200 journalism cliches — and counting” from The Washington Post; “There is no ease in journalese” from Detroit Free Press; “What Is Journalese (and What's Wrong With It)?” from ThoughtCo; “Journalese: The Sequel” from The New York Times; “Journalese is like a poker player’s tell: it shows when a story is flimsy” from New Statesman America; “Journalese: A strange English dialect” and “The many pitfalls of journalese: Clarity, not clichés, should be the journalist’s lodestar” from The Economist (UK newspaper that has been using plain language since its founding in 1843); “The World in Journalese” from The Institute for Cultural Research; “Thirty words journalists should stop using”; “Ease off the journalese”; “Columnist probes journalistic clichés” from The Sydney Morning Herald; “Clichés and Journalese” from The BBC News Styleguide; “Political clichés fill airwaves during conventions”; “Impeach political clichés in your scripts”; “Stuck in amid hell with you” from The Guardian; “Let’s ditch the journalese”; “Avoiding fad, clichés and jargon”; “Keep elected officials and journalists that cover them honest. Call out these slippery lines and clichés.”; “The 20 clichés of journalism”; “15 Journalistic Clichés That You Should Also Avoid”; “Jargon, Weasel Words, And Gobbledygook”; “Words Journalists Use That People Never Say”

PDF resources on journalism (external links): Editorial (overview); Editorial writing tips; The Complete Book of Feature Writing; News writing

PDF resources from JProf (internal links): Principles of clear, effective writing; Preview stories handout; Speech stories handout; Inverted pyramid news story; Rules for using commas

PDF style guides for journalism and business institutions (external links): Associated Press (AP) Style Guide; AP Style Guide Cheat Sheet; The Economist Style Guide; Asian Development Bank Handbook of Style and Usage (2017); Reuters Handbook of Journalism

PDF resources on grammar for journalists (external links): ASJMC Insights 2006 (“When Journalism Majors Don’t Know Grammar” and “Journalism Schools and the Teaching of Grammar”); English Grammar for Journalists; Towards a Working Grammar for Journalists; Got Grammar? (City University of New York); Spelliing and Grammar: Their Importance to Journalism (ERIC); Journalism and media (Pearson Longman)

Free training resources on journalism (external links): Journalism Center (resources for high school and college journalists); Media Helping Media; UNESCO Series on Journalism Education (with internal PDF Journalism, ‘Fake News’ and Disinformation); 1 Million Story Ideas and Writing Prompts for Student Journalists (College Media Matters) with 2019 update; Over 1,000 Writing Prompts for Students (The New York Times)

Miscellaneous PDF resources on journalism (external links): The News Manual (standard text in newsrooms across the Asia-Pacific region, developed with UNESCO); Newspaper Basics for Student Journalists; Handbook of Independent Journalism; A glossary to keep beside the TV; Writing Style Differences in Newspaper, Radio, and TV

Recommended resources on business and general writing (internal and external links): “The Simple Secrets of Writing and Speaking (Almost) Like A Professional” College Edition; “Business English for Success” from The Saylor Foundation (the discussions and exercises in this book can also be used for journalism, law, and general writing); other resources from The Saylor Foundation: Writers’ Handbook and Successful Writing; “On Writing Well” by William Zinsser; “Style, Toward Clarity and Grace” by Joseph M. Williams.

Resources on Plain Language/Plain English for business writing (external links): Are English Majors Good Business Writers?; Introducing Plain Language Principles to Business Communication Students (Rachelle Greer, University of Wyoming); Write in Plain English: Lose The Jargon And Connect With Your Reader (Forbes); How to improve your business writing (Harvard Business Review); Plain English — Essential to Great Business Writing; Business Writing for Everyone: Chapter 1: Exploring Your Reading and Writing Beliefs; Chapter 2: The Writing Process; Chapter 3: Context, Audience, Purpose; Chapter 4: Style and Tone; Chapter 5: Organizing your ideas; and 13 other chapters; Why Plain Language is good for business (The Language Lab, Business Communications); 87 Advanced Business Writing Tips That Actually Work; In Business, Plain Words Say it Best; 21 of the most hated business phrases; How to improve your business writing; The Case for Plain-Language Contracts (Harvard Business Review); Plain English for Better Business Writing; Effective Business Writing: The Importance of Plain Language; 6 reasons why using Plain Language is a bullseye for your business; 8 Business Writing Guidelines to Remember (Acrolinx); What is Plain English and why use it in Business Writing?; Plain English — Essential to Great Business Writing; The need for Plain English in global business (Pearson); Global Business Speaks English (Harvard Business Review); Writing In Plain Language Will Improve Customer Relationships; 6 Causes of Miscommunication — How to Use Plain Language Effectively (Money Crashers); Business Communication Layering: Technical Content For Different Audiences; Why You Should Always Use Plain English in Your Business Communications; In Business, Plain Words Say it Best (Canada One); Five Ways To Achieve Clarity in Your Business Writing (National Center for Business Journalism)

PDF, PPT, and other resources on Plain English for science writing (external links): “Bridging the Divide between Science and Journalism” (Journal of Translational Medicine, 2010); “Worlds Apart: How Distance Between Science and Journalism Threatens America’s Future” (First Amendment Center); “The Science of Scientific Writing” by Gopen and Swan; A Summary of “The Science of Scientific Writing”; “Scientific Communication: A Student Guide to Scientific Writing” (NYU Shanghai); Writing science in plain English; Writing Science in Plain English (Voice of America); The Craft of Scientific Writing (PPT); Writing science in plain English by Dr. Lynn Dicks, Conservation Science Group, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge (30-minute Youtube video); Scientific Writing: Clarity, Conciseness, and Cohesion (from Duke University); How to write consistently boring scientific literature by Kaj Sand-Jensen, University of Copenhagen; Plain Language in Science: Signs of Intelligible Life in the Scientific Community? (Science Editor, Nov - Dec 2001, Vol 24 No 6); Scientific Writing Resource from Duke University Graduate School: principles, examples, worksheets; Alan Alda’s Crusade to Make Science Talk a Jargon-Free Zone (Scientific American); Alan Alda wants scientists to cut out the jargon; Science, in the Words of Alan Alda (The Atlantic); What Academics Can Learn From Alan Alda (Time); 5 Questions: Alan Alda on communicating science effectively (Stanford Medicine); Resources from Duke University Graduate School Scientific Writing Resource: Scientific Writing for Scientists: Improving Clarity (PDF), Scientific Writing: Clarity, Conciseness, and Cohesion (PDF), Lesson I: Subjects / Actions, Lesson II: Cohesion, Coherence, and Emphasis, and Lesson III: Concision and Simplicity; How to write a plain-language abstract; Science in Ten Hundred Words: The “Up-Goer Five” challenge; 5 Steps to simplifying language in research communication; English Communication for Scientists (Scitable, A Collaborative Learning Space for Science); Video abstracts and plain language summaries are more effective than graphical abstracts and published abstracts; Abstract Plain Language Summaries (Pfizer); Communicating using Plain Language (Aurora College Research Institute); The secret to using tenses in scientific writing (infographic); Resources from American Geophysical Union: Sharing Planetary Science in Plain Language; Science Communicators: On Avoiding Jargon; Watch Your Words! Science vocabulary with dual meanings; The value of a plain-language abstract (The Plainspoken Scientist, AGU blog)

PDF resources on Plain English for academic writing (external links): “Why Academics Stink at Writing” by Steven Pinker; “Academic Writing in English” from University of Helsinki; “Dancing With Professors: The Trouble With Academic Writing” (New York Times); “Consequences of Erudite Vernacular Utilized Irrespective of Necessity: Problems with Using Long Words Needlessly” (Oppenheimer, Princeton University)

Resources on Technical Writing in Plain English: Internal links (PDF) - Philip Tory’s Technical Writing Course; Improving Your Technical Writing Skills (University of London); External links - Plain Language Is for Everyone, Even Experts (Nielsen Norman Group); Technical Writing Need Not Be Abstruse—Use Plain Language for Maximum Impact; 10 Guidelines for Plain English Technical Writing for Nontechnical Readers; At the Intersection of Plain Language and Technical Communications; Technical Writing in Plain English; Understanding Plain Language and Simplified Technical English; How to fix the 7 most common glitches in technical writing; Why simple language isn't so simple: the struggle to create plain language in documentation; Basics of Plain Language in Technical Documentation

Plain Language for government communications (external links): Why Use Plain Language? (US Census); Plain English Lexicon: 2,700 commonly-used words from public information documents (Living Word Vocabulary); European Commission guide on how to write clearly; Plain English Guide (Government of South Australia); Content design: planning, writing and managing content (; Plain Language: how to write clearly to meet the needs of your readers; Plain English Writing Do’s and Don’ts (Klariti); What is Plain English Gobbledygook?; Plain Language in the US Gains Momentum: 1940-2015 (Karen Schriver)

PDF resources from OWL Purdue University resources on English grammar and composition (external links): Eliminating Unnecessary Words; Five Principles of Readability; Parallelism Handout; Micro Level Cohesion Handout; Macro Level Cohesion Handout; Verb Use for ESL Writers Handout; Intra-Paragraph Organization for ESL Writers Handout

PDF resources on Plain English (internal and external links): 15 Top Tips in Plain English Writing; Introducing Plain Language; Writing style guide; Using Plain English (Asian Development Bank); Special English Word Book for radio, television, and Internet (Voice of America)

PDF resources on writing for the Internet from 4Syllables and on website design from DHHS (external links): 10 tips for web writers and editors; Concise writing; Everyday words; Active voice; Making content findable; A-Z of better web writing; Designing scannable content; Verbs: Nominalisations; Writer’s review checklist; Research-based web design and usabillity guidelines (DHHS)

Free editing programs (external links): Rewordify (this program aims at improving vocabulary and reading comprehension, but it can be used as an editing tool); Drivel Defence (this program identifies your long sentences and suggests simpler words).

Miscellaneous Plain English exercises (no time limit but with automatic scoring)

Plain English exercises with moderate time limit and automatic scoring

Plain English exercises: avoid redundancies (no time limit but with automatic scoring)

Asian Development Bank’s Clear Writing guidelines (flashcards; exercises with time limit and automatic scoring)

Exercises from OECD Style Guide 2nd Edition (British English; with time limit and automatic scoring)

Gender-neutral and gender-free language (flashcards; based on British Columbia Securities Commission Plain Language Style Guide)

Plain English exercises on avoiding redundancies (with time limit and automatic scoring)

Plain English exercises on avoiding wordiness, formalism, redundancy, nominalization or hidden verbs, doublets, dummy subjects, and double negatives (with extreme to moderate time limit and automatic scoring)

Plain English exercises on avoiding wordiness, pretentiousness, legalese, and jargon (with automatic scoring and time limit of 45 or 60 seconds)

Miscellaneous Plain English exercises with extreme time limit and automatic scoring

Plain English words and phrases (matching-type exercises)

Flashcards (based on materials from Department of Management Services Florida, USA; no scoring or time limit)

Plain English exercises on avoiding wordiness, pretentiousness, legalese, and jargon (each exercise has 10 items and a time limit of 90 seconds)

Plain English writing and editing exercises (internal and external links)

Wordy words and phrases vs. simpler words and phrases

based on the US Air Force Communications Handbook 33-337
dated 27 May 2015, also known as “The Tongue and Quill”

Miscellaneous English grammar exercises

Common English grammar errors (exercises)

(from “Common Mistakes in English with Exercises” by T. J. Fitikides)

Exercises based on “Grammar Tests” (PDF resource from Birmingham UK)

Various topics (Elementary Level Tests) Modals (Multi-Level Tests) Question Tags (Multi-Level Tests) Comparatives - Superlatives (Multi-Level Tests) Infinitives - Gerunds (Multi-Level Tests) Tenses - Passives (Elementary / Pre-Intermediate Level Tests)

Vocabulary exercises based on PDF resource from Birmingham UK

Synonyms (intermediate and upper intermediate levels)

Synonyms (advanced level; using contextual clues)

Antonyms (intermediate and upper intermediate levels)

Logic list (intermediate and upper intermediate levels)

Classified phrasal verbs


Reading comprehension exercises based on PDF resource from Birmingham UK

Paragraph summarizing and paragraph completion exercises;
correct sequence of sentences (making up a story)
based on PDF resource from Birmingham UK

Paragraph summarizing Correct sequence of sentences (making up a story)
Paragraph completion

Plain English PDF resources for legal writing

Plain Language Guide: How to Incorporate Plain Language into Court Forms, Websites, and Other Materials (National Association for Court Management, USA)

“Readers’ Expectations, Discourse Communities, and Effective Bar Exam Answers” by Denise Riebe, Duke University School of Law, Senior Lecturing Fellow

Resources by Judge Gerald Lebovits, adjunct professor at Columbia, Fordham, and New York University law schools

Plain English exercises based on Judge Gerald Lebovits' articles (except for flashcards, all exercises have time limit and automatic scoring)

Plain English interactive exercises for legal writing

Plain English guidelines used in restyling of US Federal Rules of Court (flashcards)

Flashcards (no scoring or time limit)

Plain English guidelines from various government regulatory agencies on how to create clear, concise, and effective disclosure documents (flashcards)

Preferred Expressions (Drafting Legal Documents, Federal Register; all exercises have time limit of 2 minutes and automatic scoring)

The Ohio Supreme Court Writing Manual; Commonly Misused Words and Phrases (flashcards)

Plain Language exercises based on legislative drafting manuals

(1) Matching type quizzes with time limit and automatic scoring

(2) Flashcards, based on Minnesota Revisor’s Manual 2013 Edition

(3) Flashcards, based on “Drafting Legislation in Hong Kong: A Guide to Styles and Practices”

“Legal Writing in Plain English” by Bryan A. Garner

Bryan A. Garner is a U.S. lawyer, lexicographer, and teacher who has written several books about English usage and style, including “Garner’s Modern American Usage” and “Elements of Legal Style.” He is the editor-in-chief of all current editions of Black’s Law Dictionary. He has coauthored two books with Justice Antonin Scalia: “Making Your Case: The Art of Persuading Judges” (2008) and “Reading Law: The Interpretation of Legal Texts” (2012). Garner is the only co-author of a Supreme Court Justice in the history of the Court.

Founder and president of LawProse, Inc., he serves as Distinguished Research Professor of Law at Southern Methodist University Law School.

Garner has contributed to the field of procedural rules. In 1992-1994, he revised all amendments to the various sets of Federal Rules-Civil, Appellate, Evidence, Bankruptcy, and Criminal-by the United States Judicial Conference. In the mid-1990s, he restyled the Federal Rules of Appellate Procedure and the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, which were adopted by the Judicial Conference, then by the United States Supreme Court, and enacted by Congress. The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure were restyled in 1993-1994 and adopted on December 1, 2007. The Administrative Office of the United States Courts has printed and distributed Garner’s booklet “Guidelines for Drafting and Editing Court Rules” (1996).

Garner has revised the Texas Rules of Appellate Procedure, the California Rules of Appellate Procedure, the California Judicial Council Rules, the Local Rules of the United States Court of Appeals for the 10th Circuit, and the Rules on Judicial-Conduct and Disability Proceedings (for federal courts).

Since 2012, Garner has had a monthly column in the American Bar Association Journal. Since 1999, he has had a similar column in the ABA's Student Lawyer.

As a grammarian, Garner has written books on general English usage, including Garner’s Modern American Usage. When the University of Chicago Press published the 15th edition of the influential The Chicago Manual of Style (ISBN 0-226-10403-6) in 2003, Garner contributed a chapter on grammar and usage. Garner is the only solo author of a section in The Chicago Manual of Style. (From Wikipedia)

(Note: Clicking the links below will take you to the exercises. You can download all fifty exercises in a single ASCII text file. Model answers are in Garner’s book.)

01 Have something to say--and think it through.

02 For maximal efficiency, plan your writing projects. Try nonlinear outlining.

03 Order your material in a logical sequence. Use chronology when presenting facts. Keep related material together.

04 Divide the document into sections, and divide sections into smaller parts as needed. Use informative headings for the sections and subsections.

05 Omit needless words.

06 Keep your average sentence length to about 20 words.

07 Keep the subject, the verb, and the object together--toward the beginning of the sentence.

08 Prefer the active voice over the passive.

09 Use parallel phrasing for parallel ideas.

10 Avoid multiple negatives.

11 End sentences emphatically.

12 Learn to detest simplifiable jargon.

13 Use strong, precise verbs. Minimize is, are, was, and were.

14 Turn -ion words into verbs when you can.

15 Simplify wordy phrases. Watch out for of.

16 Avoid doublets and triplets.

17 Refer to people and companies by name.

18 Don't habitually use parenthetical shorthand names. Use them only when you really need them.

19 Shun newfangled acronyms.

20 Make everything you write speakable.

21 Plan all three parts: the beginning, the middle, and the end.

22 Use the “deep issue” to spill the beans on the first page.

23 Summarize. Don’t overparticularize.

24 Introduce each paragraph with a topic sentence.

25 Bridge between paragraphs.

26 Vary the length of your paragraphs, but generally keep them short.

27 Provide signposts along the way.

28 Unclutter the text by moving citations into footnotes.

29 Weave quotations deftly into your narrative.

30 Be forthright in dealing with counterarguments.

31 Draft for an ordinary reader, not for a mythical judge who might someday review the document.

32 Organize provisions in order of descending importance.

33 Minimize definitions. If you have more than just a few, put them in a schedule at the end--not at the beginning.

34 Break down enumerations into parallel provisions. Put every list of subparts at the end of the sentence--never at the beginning or in the middle.

35 Delete every shall.

36 Don’t use provisos.

37 Replace and/or wherever it appears.

38 Prefer the singular over the plural.

39 Prefer numerals, not words, to denote amounts. Avoid word-numeral doublets.

40 If you don’t understand a form provision--or don’t understand why it should be included in your document--try diligently to gain that understanding. If you still can’t understand it, cut it.

41 Use a readable typeface.

42 Create ample white space--and use it meaningfully.

43 Highlight ideas with attention-getters such as bullets.

44 Don’t use all capitals, and avoid initial capitals.

45 For a long document, make a table of contents.

46 Embrace constructive criticism.

47 Edit yourself systematically.

48 Learn how to find reliable answers to questions of grammar and usage.

49 Habitually gauge your own readerly likes and dislikes, as well as those of other readers.

50 Remember that good writing makes the reader’s job easy; bad writing makes it hard.

Recommended resources in Plain English, Plain Language, or Clear Writing

Write in Plain English Training Guide (Careerforce guide for seminars, US 1279 Version 4)

October 13 - International Plain Language Day

A Plain Language Handbook for Writers in the U.S. Federal Government (internal PDF; interactive flashcards also available)

Health Literacy Thesaurus: Medical terms, phrases, references, and their Plain English equivalents or definitions (flashcards; internal links):

A (abdomen - avoid); B (B cells - by which time); C (cancer - cystitis); D (dander - dyspepsia); E (economical - extend) F (facilitate - fundamental); G (gamete - Guillain-Barre Syndrome); H (H5N1 - hypotension); I (identical - isolation of ill people); J-K-L (jaundice - lymphocytes); M (macrophage - mutation); N (narcotic - nutritious); O (objective - overabundance); P (palatable - purchase); Q (qualified - quarantine); R (RA - rupture); S (sanitary - systemic); T (taper - tumor); U (ulcer - UVB) V (vaccinate - vomit); W (waning immunity - witness); X, Z (X-ray - zoonoses)

Health literacy and Plain Language (external links)

Toolkit for Making Written Material Clear and Effective (U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services; external link)

Before and After revisions and discussions from some government communications (external links)

Plain Language videos (external links)

Free online training courses in Plain Language (external links)

Plain Language groups you can join (external links)

Learn more about Plain Language (external links)

“Writing English as a Second Language” by William Zinsser (a talk to the incoming international students at the Columbia Graduate School of Journalism; external link)

Plain Language checklists (external links)

Plain Language handbooks (PDFs open in new tab)

Field testing your documents (PDFs open in new tab)

Plain Talk Usability Primer (PPT; from Washington State Department of Labor & Industries)

Plain Language includes visual design (PDFs and other links open in new tab)

“Presenting numbers, tables, charts, and graphs” by Sally Bigwood and Melissa Spore (PDFs open in new tab)

“Making Data Meaningful” from UN Economic Commission for Europe (PDFs open in new tab)

Website design, usability, and Plain Language (links open in new tab)
How to start a Plain Language program in your organization

Slideshare presentations about Plain Language (external links)

“The Global English Style Guide: Writing Clear, Translatable Documentation for a Global Market” by Kohl (Table of Contents, Chapter 1)

Clear, concise English for effective legal writing (external link to series of articles)

How to avoid ambiguity (PDFs open in new tab)

Writing and editing sentences

English grammar and writing resources (PDFs and external links open in new tab)

E-books on writing and other topics from Bookboon (free registration required)

Siegel+Gale Simplicity Survey (PDFs open in new tab)

  • A Clarion Call for Transparency (2009): Eighty-four percent of respondents are “...more likely to trust a company that uses jargon-free, plain English in its communications.”
  • Global Brand Simplicity Index 2013: Simplicity in processes and communications inspires deeper trust and greater loyalty in customers, and clears the way to innovation for employees.
  • Simple: Less Is More by Alan Siegel and Irene Etzkorn, Saturday Evening Post, Nov-Dec 2013 (external link):

    “Simplicity works-in business, in government, in life. People can and should demand it. We need a call to action: the spark for a movement toward reduction of societal, governmental, and corporate complexity.”

    “Principles of simplicity apply to every interaction, whether printed, electronic, verbal, or visual. It doesn't matter whether it is a contract, an instruction, a touchscreen, or a phone tree. Products of all types-appliances, vehicles, medicines, foods-and services whether provided by a hotel, a hospital, or an online retailer can benefit from simplicity.

Exercises created by Atty. Gerry T. Galacio based on copyrighted materials available on the Internet. You can use these exercises only on a personal, educational, and non-commercial basis; you must not upload these exercises and resources to an intranet, to a website, or to the cloud. For comments, questions, or corrections, email

Exercises created with freeware Hot Potatoes v. 6.3 from the University of Victoria in British Columbia, Canada.

Free seminar-workshops on English proficiency and on photojournalism for Metro Manila schools: email or text 0927-798-3138

Better English resources and exercises (free resources on grammar, pronunciation, spelling, writing, vocabulary, idioms, reading comprehension, public speaking, etc.); Related website: Interactive English grammar and vocabulary exercises based on Korean historical dramas such as A Jewel In The Palace, Dong Yi, Jumong, Empress Ki, Moonlight Drawn by Clouds (Love In The Moonlight), etc.

Plain Language, Plain English or Plain Writing for government offices, private companies, schools, and organizations — overview, definitions, benefits, and guidelines (external link)

Be a better writer or editor through StyleWriter 4: this software checks 10,000 words in 12 seconds for hundreds of style and English usage issues like wordy and complex sentences, passive voice, nominalization, jargon, clichés, readability, spelling, etc. StyleWriter 4 has a graded 200,000 word and phrase dictionary, covering most of the words you will ever use in writing.

StyleWriter 4 is widely used in the US federal government (for example, Environmental Protection Agency). It is used in banks, law offices, and by professionals from various fields. It is fully customizable and comes with three versions: USA, UK, and Australian. StyleWriter 4 can edit memos, articles, essays, business letters, speeches, thesis, dissertations, books (fiction or non-fiction), and all kinds of corporate communications.

Family Matters (complete text of the Family Code of the Philippines; frequently asked questions; relevant laws like RA 9262; legal procedures and Rules of Court)

Legal Updates (in-depth discussions of issues affecting the Filipino family, legal procedures, support, inheritance, etc.): Plain Language / Plain English for government offices, private companies, schools, and organizations; Clear, concise English for effective legal writing; Legal procedures in civil and criminal cases; Heirs and inheritances